Vol 53 No 1 2012


Vol 53 No 1 2012

International Congress of the IAP Cape Town, South Africa

The Oswestry Anatomy Department and Pathology Museum

The Wellcome Museum of Anatomy & Pathology

Int News Volume 53 Number 1 2012.pdf









Bulletin text only:

The text below, obtained from the Bulletin PDF itself, facilitates searches for content inside the bulletin from anywhere on the website.

INTERNATIONAL PATHOLOGY (ISSN 0020-8205)

published quarterly by the International Academy

of Pathology.

Circulation 23,000 worldwide.

IAP WEBSITE

http://www.iaphomepage.org

PRESIDENT

Kristin Henry

Imperial College London at

Charing Cross Hospital

Fulham Palace Road,

London W6 8RF

UK

Email: k.henry@imperial.ac.uk

SECRETARY

David F. Hardwick

University of British Columbia

Faculty of Medicine

E-mail: iap.secretary@ubc.ca

TREASURER

J. Allan Tucker

Louise Lenoir Locke Professor

University of South Alabama

Mobile, USA

atucker@usouthal.edu

EDITOR

Robin A. Cooke

Mayne Medical School, University of Queensland

and Pathology Queensland

Brisbane, Australia

E-mail: cooker@ozemail.com.au

DESIGN

Luke Perkins Graphics

Brisbane, Australia

Email: l.perkins@bigpond.com


Vol 53 No 1 2012


We invite you to come to Cape Town,

South Africa to attend the International

Congress of the IAP, September 30 to October

5, 2012. We have arranged an outstanding

academic programme but there are many other

reasons for visiting us.

South Africa’s scenic wonders are legendary.

From Table Mountain to God’s Window, our

mountains, forests, coasts and deserts will feast

your eyes and lift your spirit. Leave the ‘ordinary’

behind.

We have world class facilities, and our New

Convention Centre near the waterfront will

impress you with its functionality. The Rainbow

Nation celebrates all its African and immigrant

cultures.

Discover our nation’s struggle for equality of

opportunity whilst following the lives of Nelson

Mandela and many others. It will touch and

inspire you.


In preparation for your visit let us tell you some-

thing about the development of Medical education


in South Africa, and about some of our Medical

Institutions that have developed a world wide

reputation. This reputation is being upheld by the

current generation of doctors, and by those who

were trained in South Africa and who are now

practising in many countries around the world.


The first Medical School in South Africa was es-

tablished by Act of Parliament on April 5th, 1918.


Prior to this in 1829 a South African College was

established as a centre for higher education and

training. From the early 1900s those who wanted


to be doctors were given training in the basic sci-

ences in the College before they went to Edinburgh


University to study medicine. The first medical

graduate from this course was Dr. GF Fismer who

graduated in1909.

The first two medical professors, RB Thompson,

Anatomy and William A Jolly, Physiology came

from Edinburgh University in 1911. They were

appointed to the South African College where they

commenced teaching early in 1912. However, their

proper laboratories were only opened on Thursday

6th June 1912. This day is considered to be the

birthday of the Medical School. Hence, 2012

marks the centenary of the first Medical School in

International Congress of the IAP

Cape Town, South Africa


South Africa. This landmark will be celebrated by

Anatomical Pathologists immediately before the

IAP Congress in Cape Town on 29th September,


2012 when an international long course on paedi-

atric and perinatal pathology will be conducted.


Up to 1919 there was a move away from Ed-

inburgh, as medical students from South Africa


began to choose to complete their training (and to

play rugby) at Guy’s Hospital and other London

hospitals.

The teaching of Pathology, Bacteriology and

Pharmacology began in 1919. The first Professor

of Pathology was W Blair Martin from Glasgow.

Above: The Congress organisers William Bates, Zelda Coetzee, Johan Schneider,

Martin Hale.

Below: The Convention Centre. It is linked to the waterfront by a canal in

which there is a ferry taxi service. (Photo courtesy of South African Tourism).


Continued page 2


2

Unfortunately he died before he started teaching in

October 1918 from the pandemic of Asian influenza

that occurred after WW1. Luckily Prof AJ Clark, phar

-

macologist from Cambridge and St Bartholomew’s

Hospital, London, and TJ Mackie, Bacteriologist from

Glasgow survived the pandemic. Mackie was co author

of the very successful textbook of Bacteriology of the

time - Mackie and Macartney.

The first clinical departments were also established

in 1919 with the appointments of Prof AW Falconer

from Scotland, Internal Medicine, Prof CFM Saint

from England, Surgery and Prof EC Chrichton from

Ireland, Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

The University graduated its first two medical doc

-

tors, Louis Mirvish and JB Solomon at the end of 1922.

There was a very rapid turnover of staff,

and in 1922 the Professor of Anatomy

was Maxwell Drennan from Edinburgh;

The Professor of Pharmacology was JWC

Gunn; and the Professor of Pathology was

GB Bartlet. He was replaced by Benjamin

Ryrie from Edinburgh 1925. JWC Gunn

was the first Dean, and he was followed

by Benjamin Ryrie.

The University of Witwatersrand in Jo

-

hannesburg established a medical faculty

and started training doctors in 1917.

The Foundation Professor of Anatomy

was Raymond Dart from Australia. The

other senior staff came from Britain and

Ireland. Their first graduates began work

as doctors in 1924.


Above left: Profs Dhiren Govender, Roc Kaschula and Helen

Wainwright at the bust of Dr Barnard Fuller who initiated

the establishment of the Cape Town Medical School more

than a 100 years ago.

Above: Dr. Chris Barnard who performed the first human

heart transplant at the Groote Schuur Hospital on 3rd

December 1967. In the museum in the old Groote Schuur

Hospital, those attending the Congress will be able to see real

life models of the actual team in the operating theatre where

it happened. (Photo courtesy of Roc Kaschula).

Left: The South African College Anatomy and Physiology

laboratories were opened on Thursday 6th June 1912. This

day is considered to be the birthday of the Medical School.

Hence, 2012 marks the centenary of the first Medical School

in South Africa. (Photo courtesy of Roc Kaschula).

Left below: The old Groote Schuur Hospital was built in

1938. This photograph taken in 1963 shows how it looked in

1967 when the first heart transplant was done.

Below: A new Groote Schuur Hospital was opened in 2010.

The former hospital (which contains the museum) is in the

background. (Photos courtesy of Roc Kaschula).


Table mountain from Blouberg Beach. (Photo courtesy of South African

Tourism).

Stellenbosch, to the East of Cape Town is a major wine producing area.

(Photo courtesy of South African Tourism).


A second centre for higher education and training in

the Afrikaans language was established at Stellenbosch,


a city just East of Cape Town. This began as the Vic-

toria College in 1866 and became the foremost centre


for higher education and training in the Afrikaans lan-

guage. It became a University at the same time as the


University of Cape Town. Its Medical School opened

in 1957. Their first Professor of Pathology was Horst

Weber and first Professor of Microbiology was Hans

Brede who were both recruited from Germany. All the

other senior appointees were South African trained,

mostly from the University of Cape Town.

Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town

This was opened in 1938. It became headline news in

the International media after Dr. Chris Barnard did

the first heart transplant there on December 3rd 1967.

Those who attend the congress will be able to see real

life models of the actual team in the operating theatre

where it happened as it is now part of a museum in the

old Groote Schuur Hospital.

(It is of interest that Roc’s wife, Sheila was one of the

very first babies to have a Ramstead procedure done for

pyloric stenosis at the hospital in January 1939. Editor).

Elsewhere In The Republic Of South

Africa

Pretoria


In 1944 a Medical School was established at the Uni-

versity of Pretoria. Previously it was called Transvaal


Universitie Kollege for Afrikaans speakers.

Bloemfontein


The Free State established a Medical School for Afri-

kaans speakers in 1959.


Medunsa

The University of Medunsa North of Pretoria was

established in 1982 for black students but it is now

amalgamated into the University of Limpopo.

Umtata

In 1996 a medical school was established in Umtata,

the capital of the former Homeland State of Transkei.

It was first called the University of Transkei, but it is

now named the Walter Sisulu University.


Political refugees from Poland were the early profes-

sors at Medunsa and at the University of Transkei.


However, the Professors of Pathology at Medunsa were

South African graduates. Leonora Dreyer was the first

Professor of Pathology. Six years later she moved to

Pretoria and she was replaced by Lou Lemmer.

Durban

In 1947 the University of Natal established a medical

school for indigenous Africans, Coloureds and Indians.

It soon became predominantly for Indian students. (It


is now the University of Kwa Zulu, Natal.) The found-

ing Professor of Pathology was Okkie Gordon who was


trained at the University of Cape Town.

Okkie specialised in Forensic Pathology. So, in 1950


John Wainwright from Sheffield, England was ap-

pointed Professor of Anatomical Pathology. He was


followed by Mini Kalichurum in 1981. John’s daugh-

ter, Helen is now an associate professor in perinatal


and pulmonary pathology at the University of Cape

Town. She is scheduled to be installed as president of

the International Paediatric Pathology Association at

the IAP Congress.


Specialist training

After the undergraduate degree, specialist training

was initially undertaken in Britain, Netherlands and

Germany. During World War 2 and shortly thereafter,


Master Degree courses were offered by the South Afri-

can Universities with Medical Schools. This was before


the establishment of a National College of Medicine in

the early sixties that now includes the various medical

disciplines in affiliated colleges.

During the late 1950s the need for a National

Professional body was recognized and Professor Basil

(Bunny) Becker, then head of Anatomical Pathology

at Witwatersrand University arranged a meeting in

Bloemfontein on 6th August 1960. Thirty four (34)


delegates representing all pathology disciplines at-

tended. Ten scientific papers were presented.


From this meeting the South African Society of

Pathology was born. Annual congresses have been

held ever since. However the lack of opportunity for

advanced scientific endeavour, and internal political

differences within South Africa resulted in many of our

most gifted medical practitioners emigrating to more

affluent countries.

In July 1966 the then Secretary of the IAP, Kash


Below: Tygerberg Hospital, the Hospital and Medical School (on the right in the photo) for Stellenbosch University. This is just East from the Cape Town CBD.

The Medical School was opened in 1957. Roc Kaschula was pathologist at the Red Cross Childrens’ Hospital in this complex. During the middle seventies through

to the late eighties, the Hospital received many patients with congenital heart ailments from the interior of Africa who came to the hospital to seek the operative

skills of the brothers, Chris and Marius Barnard. In addition the Paediatric Oncology Service attracted children from all over Africa. Since 2000, however,

foreigners are charged very high fees; so much so that very few such cases now come for treatment. (Photo courtesy of Roc Kaschula).

Mostofi attended the annual meeting of the South

African Society of Pathology and influenced them to

become the South African Division of the IAP. The

then President of this body, James Murray became

an International Vice President of the International

Council of IAP. This office has successively been held

by Cornelius Uys, Ronald Kaschula and Martin Hale.

During 1986 and 1987 the Society made significant

constitutional changes when it became a Federation

of four component independent groups representing


Clinical Biochemistry, Haematology, Medical Micro-

biology and Anatomical Pathology. The latter is the


South African Division of the International Academy

of Pathology in its current format.

The South African Institute for Medical

Research in Johannesburg.

The Institute was established in 1915. Its first project


was to investigate an outbreak of Chromoblastomy-

cosis on the skin of miners working in the gold mines.


They acquired it from the timber posts being used to

support the walls of the mine shafts. Asbestosis was

another early subject of investigation.

Dr. William Gorgas, the famous ‘Sanitation’ doctor

was a member of the US Army Walter Reed Hospital

group that showed that yellow fever was transmitted


by mosquitoes and could be eradicated by control-

ling their breeding. He then went on to control both


yellow fever and malaria amongst the workers on the

Panama Canal.

Fresh from these successes he was invited to advise

on the formation of the Institute and he was offered

the position of the First Director. He declined the

offer and nominated one of his staff members, Dr

Orenstein who was subsequently appointed. There

is now an annual Orenstein Oration in his honour.

Gorgas was the first to sign the Visitors’ book held

by the Institute.

Baragwanath Hospital

This hospital is a teaching Hospital for the University

of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. It services mainly

the city of Soweto. It delivered 60,000 babies and

treated 3,000 gunshot wounds in 1990. It is famous

especially for its Infectious Diseases Unit which deals

with a particularly large number of parasitic diseases.


It is named after John Baragwanath who ran a hos-

tel in the late 1800s to service the gold miners who


came to seek their fortunes on the rich Witwatersrand

gold mine. During WW2 his property became an air


Above: Johannesburg. South African Institute for Medical Research which opened

in 1915.

Below: William Gorgas is the first signature in the Visitors’ book for the SAIMR..


Stellenbosch - Restored house in ‘Cape Architecture’ style from 1800.


Below: Johannesburg. Baragwanath Hospital in 1991 with some of the original

pavilion wards and a newer high rise building. It was opened in 1942. The city

of Soweto is in the background.

Bottom: Vendors, including traditional healers, on the bridge between

Baragwanath Hospital and Soweto.


Above: Medunsa Pathology Museum. Hand with a large melanoma arising continued page 6

from the palm. This is not an uncommon site for this tumour in African

patients. Sole of the foot is also a common site.

Below: Stellenbosch - Uncle Sammie’s Store from 1904.

Stellenbosch is a city to the East of Cape Town. It was the original Dutch

settlement. In recent years some of the old buildings have been renovated.

This is the oldest of the restored ‘colonial buildings.’ It was built in 1709.


paigns waged in North Africa. The hospital was designed


to have single level pavilion type accommodation. It was

opened on 23 September 1942. After the war it was further

developed and modernised with the addition of multistorey


buildings. Progressively it has become one of the largest hos-

pitals in the Southern Hemisphere.


Most of the information for this report was kindly provided

by Ronald (Roc) Kaschula. Other people who kindly looked

after me during my visit in June 1991 and who provided me

with information about their country and helped me to take

the photos were Martin Hale, Andrew Tiltman, Pauline Close,

Johan Schneider, William Bates, Vincent Falck, Michael Forder,

Richard Hewlett, Vivien Chrystal, Mini Kalichurum, Reena

Ramsaroop, Steven Purcell, Bruce Middlecote, Lou Lemmer,

Charles Isaacson, Leonora Dreyer, Ian Simson, Ashwin Brandev,

Zelda Coetzee, Deidre Cloete.

Robin Cooke, Editor

Below: A young woman dressed as a ‘Traditional healer’ in a hut specially

designed for tourists. Traditional healers may be male or female. They deal in

herbal medicine, and clinicians must be aware of some of the complications of

this therapy. For example the following 3 conditions:


Herbal medicine that contains a substance called sinecia can cause veno-

occlusive disease of the liver.


Impila the ox eye daisy can cause central hepatic necrosis in children.

Potassium dichromate mixed with substances used as an enema can cause rectal

bleeding because of necrosis of the colonic mucosa.

Cape Town waterfront. (Photo courtesy of South African Tourism).


Below: Cape of Good Hope. Usually it is very windy as shown in this picture,

and one can see a line where the cold water of the Atlantic Ocean on the left

meets the warm Mozambique current from the East Coast of South Africa. The

Portuguese Navigator, Vasco da Gama in 1497 called it the ‘Cape of Storms.’

(Photo courtesy of South African Tourism).


The Oswestry Anatomy De-

partment and Pathology


Museum is situated near the

market town of Oswestry in

Shropshire close to the border

with Wales. It is a privately

funded unit, a part of the

Institute of Orthopaedics, and

is based in the Leopold Muller


Arthritis Research Centre. Al-

though it sits on land owned


by the Robert Jones & Agnes

Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital


and has close ties to it, the de-

partment is a separate body.


The hospital was founded by

Sir Robert Jones and Dame


Agnes Hunt in 1900 and it was granted NHS Founda-

tion Trust status on 1st August, 2011.


The primary role of the Institute of Orthopaedics is

to help with the postgraduate training of Specialist

Orthopaedic surgeons. It also runs courses for Allied


Health staff including nurses, radiographers and physi-

otherapists. It currently receives 200-250 visitors per


year. It depends for most of its income on course fees

and donations.


When the department was founded in 1996 it was de-

cided that it would be necessary to have museum speci-

mens to be used as teaching aids in the postgraduate


education of orthopaedic surgeons. Initially, specimens

were received from the hospital theatres and mortuary

as well as from other collections under the auspices

of the Anatomy Act, 1832/71. The implementation of

the Human Tissue Act, 2004 meant that theatre and

mortuary specimens would be much harder to obtain. It

was fortunate that, in 1996, the Institute of Anatomical


Sciences had established a Museum Specimen Reclama-

tion Scheme which currently has 10,000 specimens on


its data base. The aim of this initiative was to ‘rescue’

the old specimens from museums that were being

closed nationally and to renovate/restore the specimens

to a usable condition.

The Oswestry Museum now has two hundred and

twelve museum specimens on display and probably as

many again waiting to be prepared. A few of the rarer

specimens are illustrated. Some of the specimens have

come from our hospital, but many have come from

other establishments that closed their museums.

This Institution has taken the initiative of gathering

specimens from others who would otherwise have had

to dispose of them. The result of this is that there is now

a bigger range of cases that can be used for teaching by

all the collaborating hospitals.

Information and photographs for this article were kindly

provided by David Adams, Museum Curator.

The Oswestry Anatomy Department

and Pathology Museum

An example of a small, recently established, privately funded, specialist

Orthopaedic museum in a regional town in the United Kingdom.


Top: Pelvis showing the deformities of rickets which used

to be common throughout Europe

Above: Whole skeleton showing Paget’s disease of right

ulna, left femur and right tibia.

paigns waged in North Africa. The hospital was designed


to have single level pavilion type accommodation. It was

opened on 23 September 1942. After the war it was further

developed and modernised with the addition of multistorey


buildings. Progressively it has become one of the largest hos-

pitals in the Southern Hemisphere.


Most of the information for this report was kindly provided

by Ronald (Roc) Kaschula. Other people who kindly looked

after me during my visit in June 1991 and who provided me

with information about their country and helped me to take

the photos were Martin Hale, Andrew Tiltman, Pauline Close,

Johan Schneider, William Bates, Vincent Falck, Michael Forder,

Richard Hewlett, Vivien Chrystal, Mini Kalichurum, Reena

Ramsaroop, Steven Purcell, Bruce Middlecote, Lou Lemmer,

Charles Isaacson, Leonora Dreyer, Ian Simson, Ashwin Brandev,

Zelda Coetzee, Deidre Cloete.

Robin Cooke, Editor

Below: A young woman dressed as a ‘Traditional healer’ in a hut specially

designed for tourists. Traditional healers may be male or female. They deal in

herbal medicine, and clinicians must be aware of some of the complications of

this therapy. For example the following 3 conditions:


Herbal medicine that contains a substance called sinecia can cause veno-

occlusive disease of the liver.


Impila the ox eye daisy can cause central hepatic necrosis in children.

Potassium dichromate mixed with substances used as an enema can cause rectal

bleeding because of necrosis of the colonic mucosa.

Cape Town waterfront. (Photo courtesy of South African Tourism).


Below: Cape of Good Hope. Usually it is very windy as shown in this picture,

and one can see a line where the cold water of the Atlantic Ocean on the left

meets the warm Mozambique current from the East Coast of South Africa. The

Portuguese Navigator, Vasco da Gama in 1497 called it the ‘Cape of Storms.’

(Photo courtesy of South African Tourism).


The Oswestry Anatomy De-

partment and Pathology


Museum is situated near the

market town of Oswestry in

Shropshire close to the border

with Wales. It is a privately

funded unit, a part of the

Institute of Orthopaedics, and

is based in the Leopold Muller


Arthritis Research Centre. Al-

though it sits on land owned


by the Robert Jones & Agnes

Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital


and has close ties to it, the de-

partment is a separate body.


The hospital was founded by

Sir Robert Jones and Dame


Agnes Hunt in 1900 and it was granted NHS Founda-

tion Trust status on 1st August, 2011.


The primary role of the Institute of Orthopaedics is

to help with the postgraduate training of Specialist

Orthopaedic surgeons. It also runs courses for Allied


Health staff including nurses, radiographers and physi-

otherapists. It currently receives 200-250 visitors per


year. It depends for most of its income on course fees

and donations.


When the department was founded in 1996 it was de-

cided that it would be necessary to have museum speci-

mens to be used as teaching aids in the postgraduate


education of orthopaedic surgeons. Initially, specimens

were received from the hospital theatres and mortuary

as well as from other collections under the auspices

of the Anatomy Act, 1832/71. The implementation of

the Human Tissue Act, 2004 meant that theatre and

mortuary specimens would be much harder to obtain. It

was fortunate that, in 1996, the Institute of Anatomical


Sciences had established a Museum Specimen Reclama-

tion Scheme which currently has 10,000 specimens on


its data base. The aim of this initiative was to ‘rescue’

the old specimens from museums that were being

closed nationally and to renovate/restore the specimens

to a usable condition.

The Oswestry Museum now has two hundred and

twelve museum specimens on display and probably as

many again waiting to be prepared. A few of the rarer

specimens are illustrated. Some of the specimens have

come from our hospital, but many have come from

other establishments that closed their museums.

This Institution has taken the initiative of gathering

specimens from others who would otherwise have had

to dispose of them. The result of this is that there is now

a bigger range of cases that can be used for teaching by

all the collaborating hospitals.

Information and photographs for this article were kindly

provided by David Adams, Museum Curator.

The Oswestry Anatomy Department

and Pathology Museum

An example of a small, recently established, privately funded, specialist

Orthopaedic museum in a regional town in the United Kingdom.


Top: Pelvis showing the deformities of rickets which used

to be common throughout Europe

Above: Whole skeleton showing Paget’s disease of right

ulna, left femur and right tibia.

The Royal College of Surgeons of England maintains

two important surgical museums. The oldest, the


Hunterian Museum, was opened in 1813 with the pur-

chase of a collection of specimens assembled by John


Hunter, surgeon and anatomist during the late 1700s.


He used his specimens to help to explain the mecha-

nisms of disease, and to teach students who paid to


have teaching in Anatomy. Today the museum displays


some of John Hunter’s important specimens and cov-

ers the history of surgery to the modern day.


Over the last century other museum collections were


established by the college, including a pathology col-

lection and more recently an anatomy collection, both


of which are now displayed in the Wellcome Museum

of Anatomy and Pathology at The Royal College of

Surgeons of England. Recently all the collections and

archives held by the college have come under one

administration and they are being used to educate the

public as well as medical students and post graduate

trainees in surgery.

The historical Hunterian Museum has been open to

the public for a few years now. The number of visitors

has steadily increased, and in 2010 there were 50,000

visitors. Like a majority of museums in London it is

free to the public. It is staffed by a small number of


paid experts and they are supplemented by volun-

teers. Visitors are encouraged to make a donation to


the upkeep of the museum.

The Wellcome Museum of Anatomy and Pathology

supports 6,000 surgical trainees and various other

groups of medical trainees and professionals each

year. Progressively the display area is being converted


into bays, each of which houses specimens that re-

late to one region of the body. Anatomy specimens


are displayed on one side of the bay and pathology

specimens on the other. To complement the displays,


videos demonstrating one or more surgical opera-

tions related to the respective body region are avail-

able for study. The example chosen for illustration is


the Thorax.

During the past few years, many medical schools in


the UK have closed their anatomy and pathology mu-

seums. Some have destroyed their specimens. Others


have donated them to other museums that have the


capacity to store them according to the new regula-

tions under the Human Tissue legislation. As a result,


the larger museums, including this one have received

a lot of extra specimens that require maintenance and

storage. While this places a burden on the remaining


museums, it also means that they are getting a sup-

ply of extra specimens that can be usefully used for


teaching.

The Wellcome Museum and its anatomy and pathology

specimens are used in numerous courses run by the

College for trainees in surgery. In 2009 the anatomy

collection became a vital resource in teaching the new

series of Core Surgical Anatomy lectures run by the

College and the London Deanery for surgical trainees.

Thanks to extra funding, over the last two years the


museum has seen an increase of 3,500 visitors includ-

ing medical students. It has been used to run classes


in anatomy and pathology for students from medical

schools that no longer have museums. A group of

medical students from Birmingham recently attended

such lectures on a Saturday morning. They paid for the


lectures and for the transport to London.

The Royal College of Surgeons received its Royal

Charter in the time of King Henry V111. This Royal

patronage has continued, and in February 2011 His

Royal Highness, Prince Andrew, Duke of York visited


the Museum in his capacity of UK Trade Representa-

tive to see some of the intellectual property he is


trying to sell. He had seen the operative technique

area and wanted to see the medical education side

of the RCS. Mr Richard Bruton was lecturing a

group of students at the time, so Prince Andrew

joined in the discussion.

In the 1990’s it was identified that a tin box which


was part of the College’s collections had been spe-

cially made by Robert Koch of Berlin to transport


cultures of M. tuberculosis to demonstrate in his

lectures on the microbiology of tuberculosis. A sub

culture of the colonies was made and it was sterile.

Koch had treated the tube cultures with formalin

for safety in transport. This is now on display in the

Hunterian Museum.

Information for this article was kindly provided by Dr.

Sam Alberti, Director of Museums and Archives, Mr.

Martyn Cooke, Head of Conservation and Ms. Carina

Phillips, Curator, Royal College of Surgeons, England.

Images were taken with permission of ‘The Wellcome

Museum of Anatomy and Pathology at the Royal College

of Surgeons.’


Martyn Cooke and his colleagues Carina Phillips and Christine King.

Christine is removing the final tiny pieces of tissue from a skeleton like

the one above. Numerous individual bones and full skeletons have been

donated to the museum since the closure of smaller museum collections.

HRH, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, visited the museum when Mr

Richard Bruton was lecturing a group of students so he joined in the

discussion.


Above: The Thorax bay. Anatomy on the left and pathology on the right. Above right: A full skeleton displaying multiple bone exostoses. The soft tissue has been

digested away and the final pieces of tissue were removed by hand. The skeleton is housed in a Perspex container for protection. It can be swivelled around through

180o so that it can be examined very easily and without touching it. Beside it is an X ray of the skeleton.


Above: A demonstration of the lobar anatomy of the lungs. From left to right a model of the left lung with the lobes marked in different colours; A corrosion

cast demonstrating the vascular supply of the lungs; A specimen of lobar pneumonia donated in 1932. This is so called because the inflammation involves

particular lobes of the lung. Before the introduction of penicillin, lobar pneumonia was a common cause of death.




Bulletin Keywords (optional)


<<Insert additional keywords here , if required>>